Racial democracy, citizenship and immigration: the United States experience in comparative perspective
Keywords:racial democracy, immigra- tion, inequality, social exclusion, social inclusion, citizenship, USA
AbstractThe article considers the racial democracy concept in relation to social inequality. The notion of racial democra- cy initially described the Latin American racial dynamics which distinguished from the U.S.A. Racial democracy can be defined as racial diversity without racial inequality. The article aims at interpreting the racial democracy as an analytic tool that can be helpful in studying historical configurations and its implications in immigration policies. The first part of the article is devoted to the genesis of the notion of racial democracy and discusses the relationship between the racial exclusion and the institution of citizenship. The second part is a historical overview of the racial exclusion policy illustrated by the example of the evolution of the American immigration laws and precedes a discussion of mul- ticulturalism as a social inclusion tool. In conclusion, the article explores the po- tential of racial democracy as an analytic tool and as an indicator of the levels of social justice.
THEORY AND METHODOLOGY