Features of Ethnicity and Interethnic Relations in Urban and Rural Areas in Khakassia





urbanization, ethnic processes, interethnic relations, city, the Khakass


The article provides an analysis of the impact that urban lifestyles have on ethnic processes (ethnic consolidation, mobilization and erosion of the Khakass ethnic identity) in the Republic of Khakassia. The author examines the transformation of the urban Khakass communities by comparing them with the Russian urban populations in the region and the Khakass people living in rural areas. The study is based on the materials of a survey conducted in the Republic of Khakassia in 2018 (a sample size of 1,500 people). The sample consisted of two parts: (1) 1,000 former rural inhabitants (Russian and Khakass ethnicities) now living in Khakass urban localities were interviewed to study adaptation processes; (2) 500 Khakass living in rural area were interviewed to compare the levels of ethnic self-consciousness between those Khakass living in urban areas and those living in rural areas. A structured interview was used as the main survey technique. The analysis proves that there are differences in the development of the ethnicities and interethnic relations in urban and rural communities. This may be related to the impact of urbanization on the Khakass national identity, customs and the worldview of the republic’s indigenous people. Ethnic consolidation among the Khakass appears to be more pronounced in urban areas; this might be a reaction to the “aggressive” poly-ethnic urban environment the Khakass people need to integrate into more intensively putting aside their sub-ethnic differences. Ethnic mobilization in the urban environment is also manifested in the way that the urban dwellers actualize their ethnic identity: in urban areas ethnic identity is much important to the Khakass people than in rural areas.  

Acknowledgments. The work is supported by the grant of the RF President for the State Support of Young Russian Scientists (no. МК-6401.2018.6).

Author Biography

Elena Ye. Tinikova, Khakass Research Institute of Language, Literature and History

  • Khakass Research Institute of Language, Literature and History, Abakan, Russia
    • Cand. Sci. (History), Senior Research Fellow at the Department for International and Interregional Relations